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Use of Dunnage and Advantages

Use of Dunnage and Advantages?

  1. Dunnage is used for General/Bulkhead cargo.
  2. The damage caused by sweat may be minimized by adequate use of dunnage.
  3. Dunnage keeps the cargo away from the steel, ship side, and tank top, thus facilitating air circulation and preventing the formation of moisture and condensation.
  4. The permanent dunnage on ship sides is known as spar ceilings or cargo battens. (Cargo Battens or Spar Ceilings – They consist of timber about 150 mm X 50 mm fitted over the frames, horizontally into the cleats on the frames. These cargo battens are spaced approximately 250mm apart. They are also fitted vertically. Spar ceiling also fitted in fore and aft bulkheads of hold.)
  5. The tank top should be covered with a single or double layer of dunnage consisting of 25 mmX150-300mm timber spaced between 250-1000mm apart depending on the size of the cargo packages.

Advantages of Dunnage

Separation is to prevent the different cargo or different parcels for the same port or the same cargo for different ports from getting mixed. 

• The method of separation depends upon the type of cargo being carried.
A) Bagged cargo is separated by cloths or netting.
B) Steel billets, pipes, logs, or timber can be separated by chalk marks or water paint.

• Proper separation can further reduce over-carriage cargo.

• The system of checking the discharged cargo with the manifest, as well as the physical inspection of the cargo hold, should be carried out very easily.

• To prevent the cargo from damage, i.e., sweat

• Protection against mechanical damage like – during load or discharge, the crane sling breaks and if cargo is fitted with dunnage or pallets, can be easily saved.

• To increase the friction between cargo and bottom as a result shift of cargo is restricted.

• To spread the weight of the cargo.

Type of Dunnage

  1. Floor Dunnage
  2. Inter-Layer Dunnage (A- To prevent the underlying cargo from contamination. B- Segregation of Individual batches of cargo)
  3. Side Dunnage (Spar ceilings, Cargo battens)
  4. Top Dunnage (Top dunnage is made of special absorbent i.e., non-woven fabric that can absorb maximum water)

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